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The Origin of Russia
5116#20208 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 20208
0717 Byzantine Empire
0717 Byzantine Empire
5116#11860 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11860
0850   ± Scandinavia & Novgorod
0850 ± Scandinavia & Novgorod
5116#11858 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11858
○○○ 0850± Scandinavia ⪢⪢
During the 9th century, Scandinavia in northern Europe is populated by, among others, the Vikings, excellent sailors who explore in all directions to plunder but also to develope trade routes. #bookmark
5116#5285 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 5285
○○○ 0850± Byzantine Empire ⪢⪢
To the south is the powerful Byzantine Empire with its capital Constantinople, an important commercial crossroads between East and West.
5116#5290 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 5290
○○○ 0850± Varangians ⪢⪢
The city is attractive and interests some Vikings also known as the Varangians. #bookmark
5116#9544 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 9544
○○○ 0850± Dnieper ⪢⪢
They go up the rivers with their light boats that they can then carry to the sources of the Dnieper and reach the Black Sea. #bookmark
5116#5323 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 5323
○○○ 0850± Rurik ⪢⪢
One of them, called Rurik, is said to have founded the principality of Novgorod, becoming the first of a very long Rurik dynasty. #bookmark
5116#6291 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 6291
0850± Novgorod was in the north of Lake Ilmen.
0850± Novgorod was in the north of Lake Ilmen.
5116#11859 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11859
0867 Byzantine Empire
0867 Byzantine Empire
5116#11685 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11685
○○○ 0882 ⪢⪢
In 882, his heir Oleg leaves with an army and conquers Smolensk and Kiev. He then founds the Kievan Rus' of which he becomes prince. The new state includes mainly Slavic and Finnish tribes.
5116#6561 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 6561
○○○ 0882+ ⪢⪢
In the southeast, tensions rise with the rich Khazar kingdom which controls the important Volga trade route.
5116#6594 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 6594
0882+ Dnieper & Volga River
0882+ Dnieper & Volga River
5116#11857 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11857
○○○ 0964 ⪢⪢
In 964, Sviatoslav launches a military expedition against it. After subduing the Volga Bulgaria, he destroys Atil, the Khazar capital, and then confirms his domination by subduing the Bulgarian Empire in the Balkans. → subdue
5116#6620 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 6620
○○○ 0972 ⪢⪢
But the Khazar Kingdon, weakened, no longer holds back the nomadic tribes of Central Asia which come to settle in the South of the Kievan Rus'. Among them are the Pechenegs who in 972 kills Sviatoslav during an ambush.
5116#6877 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 6877
○○○ 0976 ⪢⪢
The Kievan Rus' is divided between the 3 heir sons and the fratricidal war breaks out. (0977) Vladimir, the prince of Novgorad, flees to Scandinavia where he forms an army of mercenaries. → mercenary
5116#7316 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 7316
○○○ 0978 ⪢⪢
He returns, seizes Kiev, kills his brother and takes the title of Grand Prince of Kiev. In the South, the Byzantine Empire already at war with Bulgarians undergoes an insurrection. The emperor asks Vladimir for help and receives 6,000 warriors.
5116#11852 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11852
○○○ 0988 ⪢⪢
In exchange, Vladimir asks for the hand of the emperor's sister. But to get married, he first has to break with paganism and convert to Christianity. #bookmark
5116#11854 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11854
○○○ 0989 ⪢⪢
After his baptism and wedding, Christianity of the Byzantine Rite becomes the official religion of the Kievan Rus', under the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
5116#11856 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11856
○○○ 1019~1054 Yaroslav the Wise ⪢⪢
After Vladimir's death, a new fratricidal war breaks out and turns to the advantage of Yaroslav the Wise. During his rein, the territory of the Kievan Rus' continues to expand and the Pechenegs threat is eliminated. #bookmark
5116#11881 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11881
○○○ 1054 ⪢⪢
In 1054, after tensions between Rome and Constantinople, Christianity is split between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. This further widens the gap between the Slaves of the Kievan Rus' and the Polish Slaves who had converted to Catholicism.
5116#11896 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11896
○○○ 1054 ⪢⪢
Yaroslav, who has many sons, fears a new fratricidal war after his death. He then decides to divide the Kievan Rus' into several principalities that he shares between his sons in whom he has the most confidence.
5116#11870 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 11870
○○○ 1054 ⪢⪢
The eldest son gets the most important title of Grand Prince of Kiev. After his death, the cadet will take his place and the princes will change thrones.
5116#12941 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 12941
○○○ 1054 ⪢⪢
This new rotating power-sharing agreement will be the root cause for several generations' numerous internal wars that will exhaust and divide the Kievan Rus'. #will_would
5116#12942 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 12942
○○○ 1200 ⪢⪢
In Western Europe, the Catholic religion is more and more on the offensive. The Pope launches the Baltic crusades intended to convert the pagan peoples around the Baltic sea. Germans arrive in Riga and begin their conquest.
5116#17647 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 17647
○○○ 1202 ⪢⪢
At the same time, a fourth crusade, initially sent to the Holly Land, is diverted to Constantinople. The city is besieged and then pillaged. The Byzantine Empire finds itself divided and Kievan Russia loses an important ally. → divert, besiege, pillage
5116#17650 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 17650
○○○ 1223 Cumans ⪢⪢
In the east, the Kahn of the Cumans is attacked by unknown knights coming from the far east who are called the Mongols. #bookmark
○○○ 1223 repel ⪢⪢
The Russian princes form a coalition to repel this new threat but they are defeated. #bookmark
5116#14764 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 14764
○○○ 1223 Bulgarians ⪢⪢
The Mongols then move north where they are defeated by the Bulgarians before disappearing. #bookmark
5116#14827 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 14827
○○○ 1223 vanguard ⪢⪢
The Russian princes don't know it yet but this was only a small vanguard on the lookout. #bookmark
5116#17886 SIBLINGS CHILDREN 17886