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BC 0800? Roman Numerals | R
The Romans showed numbers into the thousands using these 7 symbols: I for 1, V for 5, X for 10, L for 50, C for 100, D for 500 and M for 1000.

BC 0570 - 0495 Pythagoras | R
How many ways are there to prove the Pythagorean theorem? - Betty Fei

BC 0500? Pythagorean Mathematicians | R
Their dictum of "All is number" suggested that numbers were the building blocks of the Universe and part of this belief was that everything from cosmology and metaphysics to music and morals followed eternal rules describable as ratios of numbers.

BC 0500? Hippasus | R
According to Pythagoras theorem the diagonal length of a square with each side measuring one unit would be square root of two. The assumption that square root of two could be expressed as a ratio of two integers deduces a contradiction.

BC 0384 - 0322 Aristotle | R
The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle taught that heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones.

BC 0300? Euclid | R
It was the Greek mathematician Euclid who produced the first precise description of the golden ratio. A length is devided into two parts in such a way that the smaller part is to the larger part in the same proportion as the larger one is to the whole.

BC 0287 - 0212 Archimedes | R
How to Calculate Pi, Archimedes' Method

08th century Hindu-Arabic numeral system | R
By the 8th century, Indian mathematicians had perfected positional notation and over the next several centuries, Arab merchants, scholars and conquerors began to spread it into Europe.

1202 Leonardo Fibonacci | R
Fibonacci asked himself how many pairs of rabbits originated from a single pair in one year. Each pair of rabbits will produce exactly one more pair of both sexes per month which in turn would be fertile from the second month after birth.

1564 - 1642 Galileo Galilei | R
Galileo's inspired use of a ramp had shown falling objects follow the mathematical laws. The distance the ball traveled is directly proportional to the square of the time.

1571 - 1630 Johannes Kepler | R
Keplar observed that the relationship between a number in Fibonacci sequence and the previous number more and more closely approaches the irrational number Phi the longer the sequence is continued and Phi describes nothing other than the golden section.

1643 - 1727 Isaac Newton | R
Galileo had already discovered some years prior that the distance traveled by a falling object is represented by a function of time. Newton wondered how one could calculate the velocity of the object at any particular instance during the fall.

1646 - 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz | R
Leibniz did similar work just a few years later, independently of Newton, and it is actually his notation that we still use today.

History of Mathematics | R
[History of Mathematics Inc. Newton, Leonardo da Vinci, Plato] Short History of Mathematics 1
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